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الثلاثاء، 2 يوليو 2019

Microbiota" trillions of microorganisms inhabit our bodies .. What is the story





Microbiota" trillions of microorganisms inhabit our bodies .. What is the story!! 



Our bodies host trillions of microorganisms, whose cells exceed the cells of the body itself. The microbiology is used to describe microorganisms, as well as host elements derived from the components of the environment in which these microorganisms live, according to the site " Arabic".


Microbiology is gaining increasing importance due to the role played by its micro-organisms and its interaction with the different environments of the body, negatively affecting health, on the one hand, and positive on the other hand, such as relying on digestion of food, producing some vitamins, regulating the immune system, From other pathogens, and so on.


Microbiology is a non-subjective device that the immune system sees as a strange object, posing a vital question about the relationship between the various vital systems of the body, as well as between them and hosts of living organisms. This knowledge has become essential for the future of health care and disease treatment.


Indeed, for a long time now the century passed, there was no consensus among scholars on the definition of this relationship. Since there was a symbiotic relationship, views differed as to what symbioticism was. But new biological research and the great development of associated technology have led to the expansion of concepts about this relationship and its nature beyond the previous controversy.



Microbium exceeds the limits of symbiosis


The relationship that governs the long-term interaction between two different entities is called the Takaful. When this symbiotic relationship is mutually beneficial, it is known as reciprocity, and when it is useful to one of them, while the host is unaffected, it is known as living. Finally, the relationship can be beneficial to one, but harmful to the host, then called a parasitic relationship; the latter indirectly controls our conventional perception of the relationship between microorganisms and the human body that colonizes it.


The type of interaction between microorganisms and our bodies can not be limited to one of the terms described above, because many other factors govern it, including the anatomical location, physiological status of the colonizing organ, as well as the abundance of any microorganisms for others.


For example, some living bacteria, which colonize the skin, can cause food poisoning if eaten, and a deadly infection when they reach the blood. While microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract prevent pathogenic microorganisms from expanding; but their elimination by antibiotics disrupts the balance and leads to serious infections.



Growth and development of human microbiome


The embryos remain sterile until the moment they are born through the birth canal, where they are exposed to the vaginal microbial. This is the early establishment of microbiomes of these embryos that continue to develop during the early years of life influenced by microbiota found in breast milk and microorganisms in the environment, as well as affected by exposure to antibiotics.


Later in life, our microbiota become more stable. But they remain subject to changes imposed by factors such as diet, stress and exposure to drugs. In fact, early exposure to microbial colonization is essential for the proper development of our immune system. Children born through caesarean delivery, which are not exposed to microbial in the birth canal, have been found to be more susceptible to metabolic diseases, immunosuppressive diseases such as diabetes, obesity, allergies and asthma.


In this context, the protective role of microbiota against diabetes has been demonstrated in experimental animal models. Conversely, in the case of autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis, microbiota is a disease-causing mechanism in a completely incomprehensible mechanism, possibly through interactions between antigens and antibodies.


Microbiotics and cancer


Not far from its role in refining the immune system, the role of microbiota was observed in stimulating the process of tumor formation. This may be secondary to chronic inflammation, or from the direct ability of certain microbes to stimulate genotoxic stress, which changes intracellular signals in host cells by metabolites (the intermediate products of the metabolism) they produce. Examples of this are stomach cancers that can be caused by chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori, gastrointestinal cancers associated with inflammation driven by living organisms, as well as cancers of the biliary system (which consists of the liver, gallbladder and gall bladder canal).


In parallel, there is evidence emerging in animal models that microbiota of healthy intestines can be protective against certain cancers, as in blood by maintaining the integrity of the intestinal barrier. At the time of infection, bacterial leakage leads to chronic inflammation that can promote the formation of cancerous tumors in blood cells that contain specific genetic mutations.


Microbiota and pathogens


In addition to regulating the immune response, microbiota defends the pathogenesis of pathogens by competing for micro-organisms and nutrients, or by altering the microbiality of metabolites produced by complex carbohydrate treatments. In addition, microbiota can create antimicrobial conditions by addressing acidity levels, as in vaginal microbiology or through the production of antimicrobial agents.



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